After a long struggle, British India agreed on 5 November that the uninterrupted flow of the Ganges is the rudimentary right of Hindu believers. The day is known as a 'Aviral Ganga Samjhauta Divas' Uninterrupted Ganga flow agreement day in the history of India and the agreement came into existence on 19 December which is known as Agreement of The sanctity of the agreement is not preserved by the state and central governments of India after independence though it is legally valid.
More and more river water is diverted for irrigation use converting the river into a polluted sewer. Its main objective was to improve the water quality by the interception, diversion and treatment of domestic sewage and to prevent toxic and industrial chemical wastes from identified polluting units from entering the river. The other objectives of the GAP are as follows:.
Notwithstanding some delay in the completion of the first phase of the GAP it has generated considerable interest and set the scene for evolving a national approach towards replicating this program for the other polluted rivers of the country. Under NRCP scheme the CPCB had conducted river basin studies and had identified 19 gross polluted stretches and 14 less polluted stretches along 19 rivers, which include 11 stretches situated along 7 rivers of M.
It was much more effective as compared to the previous launched programs. Phase II covered 59 towns in five states; Rs Rivers such as Yamuna, Gomti, Damodar, Mahananda had separate action plans.
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It declared the Ganges as the "National River" of India. Earlier efforts to clean the Ganges concentrated on a few highly polluting towns and centres and addressed 'end-of-the-pipe' wastewater treatment there; Mission Clean Ganga builds on lessons from the past, and will look at the entire Gangetic basin while planning and prioritising investment instead of the earlier town-centric approach.
The Supreme Court of India has been working on the closure and relocation of many of the industrial plants like Tulsi along the Ganges. In the government declared the stretch of river between Gaumukh and Uttarkashi an Eco-sensitive zone. Under the project, 8 states are covered. Dept of Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation proposes to make 1, gram panchayats by the Ganges open defecation-free by , at a cost of Rs 1, cr central share. As a part of the program, government of India ordered the shut down of 48 industrial units around the Ganges. The program has a budget outlay of Rs.
This is a significant four-fold increase over the expenditure in the past 30 years Government of India incurred an overall expenditure of approximately Rs. In an attempt to bolster enforcement the centre also plans to establish a four-battalion Ganga Eco-Task Force. Major infrastructure investments which fall under the original mandate of other ministries viz. Significantly the approach is underpinned by socio-economic benefits that the program is expected to deliver in terms of job creation, improved livelihoods and health benefits to the vast population that is dependent on the river.
Its implementation has been divided into entry-level activities for immediate visible impact , medium-term activities to be implemented within five years of time frame and long-term activities to be implemented within ten years. Ganga Manthan was a national conference held to discuss issues and possible solutions for cleaning the river. The conference aimed to take feedback from stakeholders and prepare a road map for rejuvenating the Ganges.
Nepal has constructed many barrages excluding joint projects with India or pump houses to divert the lean season river flows for irrigation purpose. India being lower riparian state has right to claim share out of the river water flows from Nepal similar to India entered into river water sharing agreement with Bangladesh recognising it as lower riparian state. For restoring the minimum environmental flows, it is difficult to identify nearly Tmcft storage reservoirs in the hilly region of Ganges basin in India as the river is flowing through steep valleys.
Already big storage reservoirs like Tehri and Ramganga are constructed at feasible locations. It holds more than tmcft water in its top 13 meters depth.
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At present it is overflowing into nearby Lake Rakshastal which is a landlocked saltwater endorheic lake. This would be a joint project of China, Nepal and India for controlling river water pollution and making the Ganges river live and flowing throughout the year. With the diversion of Manasarovar lake water to Ganges basin, Lake Rakshastal would turn into a Soda lake with further increase in water salinity which is useful in abstracting the water-soluble chemicals on commercial scale.
The fresh water inflows into Manasarovar lake can be augmented further substantially by gravity diversion of the inflows available from the major catchment area of Rakshastal lake to Manasarovar lake by constructing an earth dam isolating northern tip of Rakshastal lake where it is fed by its substantial catchment area and also connected to the Manasarovar lake. Utilisation of Ganges and Bramhaputra flood waters to fight pollution in all rivers of India. The dike would be envisaged with gated barrages to pass to the sea the excess flood waters total mean annual flow bcm received from the Ganges, Brahmaputra , etc.
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See Google earth maps for more geographical information. Further, water can be pumped into the Bagh reservoir and Upper Indravati reservoir located in Godavari River basin to transfer Ganges water into Godavari and Krishna river basins. The advantage of this scheme is that Ganges and Bramhaputra river waters can be stored on Bay of Bengal sea area and nearly bcm water 17, cumecs transferred throughout the year to other river basins including Ganges basin at optimum pumping head.
The presence of the protective sea dike makes sub sea soil dredging easier and economical through protection from rough sea waves. This reclaimed area from the sea can be utilised for locating a megacity to cater to the modern needs of Bangladesh. This coastal dike would protect the Bangladesh from the wave and tidal activity during the frequent cyclones preventing human and property losses drastically and also from sea level rise due to global warming. Thus Bangladesh would also benefit immensely with this coastal reservoir project.
Also this dike can be used as access way connecting deep sea ports located close to this dike. The proposed dike would be similar to the land reclamation of North Sea area called Delta Works in Netherlands. Locks arrangement similar to Panama canal would be provided for the movement of ships from the open sea to harbours located in Bangladesh and India. The main purpose of the twin dikes is to prevent any sea water seepage into coastal reservoir as its water level is below the sea level.
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The water level between the dikes is always maintained up to 1 m above the sea level by pumping fresh water from the coastal reservoir to the m gap between the dikes. The higher level water barrier between the two dikes fully eliminate any sea water seepage in to the coastal reservoir by establishing fresh water seepage to the sea. For shipping purpose, the breakwater outer dike facing the sea is envisaged with few locks fitted with twin gates for access to the open sea.
The top surface of inner dike would serve as access to the main land from the mega harbor with rail and road links. The coastal reservoir whose full reservoir water level FRL is at 0. The cost of the total project including coastal reservoir, water pumping stations 60 GW , canal drop hydro power stations 15 GW , main canals, tunnels, aqueducts, barrages and distribution canals is estimated nearly 20 trillion lakh crores INR at year prices. Disputes Resolution Committee: Under the Bill, when a state puts in a request regarding any water dispute, the central government will set up a Disputes Resolution Committee DRC , to resolve the dispute amicably.
The DRC will comprise of a Chairperson, and experts with at least 15 years of experience in relevant sectors, to be nominated by the central government. It will also comprise one member from each state at Joint Secretary level , who are party to the dispute, to be nominated by the concerned state government. The DRC will seek to resolve the dispute through negotiations, within one year extendable by six months , and submit its report to the central government.
Such referral must be made within three months from the receipt of the report from the DRC. This Tribunal can have multiple benches. All existing Tribunals will be dissolved, and the water disputes pending adjudication before such existing Tribunals will be transferred to the new Tribunal.
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Composition of the Tribunal: The Tribunal will consist of a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson, three judicial members, and three expert members. They will be appointed by the central government on the recommendation of a Selection Committee. Each Tribunal Bench will consist of a Chairperson or Vice-Chairperson, a judicial member, and an expert member. The central government may also appoint two experts serving in the Central Water Engineering Service as assessors to advise the Bench in its proceedings.
The assessor should not be from the state which is a party to the dispute. Time frames: Under the Act, the Tribunal must give its decision within three years, which may be extended by two years. For instance, the Amazon River receives water from more than 1, tributaries. Together, a river and its tributaries make up a river system. A river system is also called a drainage basin or watershed. The end of a river is its mouth. Here, the river empties into another body of water—a larger river, a lake, or the ocean.
Many of the largest rivers empty into the ocean. The flowing water of a river has great power to carve and shape the landscape. Many landforms, like the Grand Canyon in the U. This process is called weathering or erosion. The energy of flowing river water comes from the force of gravity, which pulls the water downward. The steeper the slope of a river, the faster the river moves and the more energy it has. The movement of water in a river is called a current.
Storms can also increase the current. A swift current can move even large boulder s. These break apart, and the pieces that are carried in the moving water scrape and dig into the river bottom, or bed. Little by little, a river tears away rocks and soil along its bed, and carries them downstream. The river carves a narrow, V-shaped valley. Rapids and waterfall s are common to rivers, particularly near their sources.
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Eventually, the river flows to lower land. As the slope of its course flattens, the river cuts less deeply into its bed. Instead, it begins to wind from side to side in looping bends called meanders. This action widens the river valley.